7 Deadly Scenarios A Military Futurist Explores War in the 21st Century Free E–pub
I read this years ago back when I was in college and I m afraid it wasn t as ood as I remembered The scenarios are thought provoking to be sure but the fictional citations end up distracting from the text as a whole because it isn t Ray GazzoMs CairnsEnglish 41010177 Deadly Scenarios7 Deadly Scenarios was written by Andrew F Krepinevich Published in 2009 Krepinevich reports on future world affairs that threaten the United States Border disputes and immigration the Nuclear Black Market China s Birth and Fortune: The Impact of Numbers on Personal Welfare growing civil unrest and Pakistan political collapse Krepinevich araduate of West Point and Harvard has served as a consultant on military affairs for the Department of Defense and Central Intelligence Agency he currently serves on the Defense Policy Board and Transformation Advisory Group of the Joint Forces Command World chaos ensues in both the 1st and 3rd world countries many powerful nations are brought to their knees with political and economic unrest This book reveals the forces that play ambitious roles in world powers terrorist Island Girls (and Boys) groups and rogue states and the actions and counteractions both enemies and allies can be expected to pursue if war is near and the US s role to prepare before it s too late Readers with a distaste in non fiction and IRA might find the book to be slow and irrelevant To the people who love the study of IRA International Relations and Affairs and foreign intelligence will be focused with this book 7 Deadly Scenarios brings a first person look into future affairs and allows you to see the world for what it really is According to the book the most pressing issue today is the collapse of the Pakistani s and their nuclear arsenal As Pakistan s political climate is crumbling the issue presses of what happens to the NuclearWMD arsenal if their is no state to control it ISIS Al aeda and the Taliban are heavily influenced around Pakistan if the country collapses and anarchy ensues these terrorist organizations will be able to control Weapons of Mass Destruction WMD and kill hundreds of thousands of men women and children Krepinevich is not easily contradictable he brings facts to the table fromovernment agencies and inside reporting You cannot dispute the facts of Krepinevich s reporting however you can dispute the United States Calvinists Incorporated: Welsh Immigrants on Ohio's Industrial Frontier government influence and policy The Ira and Afghanistan war has been America s longest running wars Starting after 911 the Bush administration pursued Saddam Hussein in Ira over false intelligence reports indicating that a WMD presence was in Ira Afghanistan was pursued by the Marines and US Army in order to eliminate that Taliban presence and to destroy supplies distributed to terrorist organizations fighting the United States Past experience from the Vietnam War has shown that the United States cannot fight forever and the larger the problem becomes the longer the war When the WMD presence was not found the US remained in Ira which sparked protests across the US and the World for a unlawful occupation of Ira The United States has slowly withdrew from Ira leaving behind a destroyed society incapable of running itself Islamic Extremistroups and religious differences have spread through the disfigured country ISIS Islamic State of Ira and Syria are responsible for the deaths of hundreds of thousands of people in Ira and Syria 7 Deadly Scenarios presents me with future world conflicts that our country will possibly face soon This book also Stretching Lessons: The Daring that Starts from Within gave me a open mind that allowed me to see other countries and the struggles they face now and in the dire future I urge readers to consider this book not only for recreation but for political policy Donald Trump is the first president without political background however he has surrounded his cabinet with some of the most fierce and intellectual military leaders such as James Mad Dog Mattis SECDEF and General John Kelly and Homeland Security Advisor These men have been playing theame long enough to steer America out of conflicts until it is truly necessary The foresight of the American future is Call the Next Witness going to be determined by our political appointments but it is also the job of the citizens to see the future for themselves and how they can help to build a better America and world for the future to comeWord Count 671 So how many ways can the United States lose in a future conflict or crisis Andrew Krepenivich counts the ways in his 7 Deadly Scenarios Scenarios are basically hypothetical problems that are within the span of possibility in the real world which planners use to practice crafting policies and responses They might fall out of the blue but even an unexpected hypothetical will jar the reader into thinking about solutions from different angles perhaps outside the boundaries of conventional expectations Each scenario is a tidy nightmare rogue nukes being set off in the USA a newlobal pandemic Pakistan collapses China implodes In each instance the US has a direct or indirect interest that is being challenged But due to limited American power lack of information or the unpredictability of bold action policy makers and presidents can find themselves shackled and Building for the Arts: The Strategic Design of Cultural Facilities gagged making weak responses to strong challenges This does not mean the USA is doomed to be a pitifuliant to uote Nixon But it does mean having an approach to crisis that can emerge from practiceHere the book calls for a solution that no longer exists Krepenevich advocates Joint Forces Command to be the champion of contingency planning Bulletproof Feathers: How Science Uses Nature's Secrets to Design Cutting-Edge Technology gaming and scenario development But this command was just axed in a round of Pentagon budget cutting after Krepenvich s book made it to print What branch of the Pentagon steps forward to develop this mission remains to be seen 7 Deadly Scenarios is a very uick read but don t let the book s brevity deceive you Crisis management is the acid test of every presidency The nightmares of Krepenevich s strategic imagination could come to pass let s hope they don t But they are food for the reader s thought and aood #Challenge To Conventional Expectations Makes # to conventional expectations Makes think about scary things Useful for the value of scenarios in various life problems Got uite technical at endbackground in military kit would have been useful Up front I ll say that I didn t much enjoy this book and I wish I hadn t paid for itThe author s premise is that accurately predicting the future is hard and because military planning lead time measures in years if we make bad Casuistry and Modern Ethics: A Poetics of Practical Reasoning guesses now about future risks we ll have the wrong tools and the wrong training in place to deal with things when they happen He proposes the use of scenarios to prompt military planners to consider how things might develop and what responses they might reuire He then describes several possible future scenarios in which international crises threaten the USOne problem I see immediately is that all of his scenarios are themselves dependent on a fair amount of prediction one scenario predicts a slowdow I picked up this book upon realizing that there was a chapter about pandemics At the time I had been out of work a week because of the current pandemic sweeping the world and was curious about the insights Krepinevich made when the book was writtenpublished versus what the situation in the world was like today Overall it was an enjoyable read I don t think Iained any fascinating insights into how the future will bethe present currently is What was most interesting besides just the hypothetical scenarios and their creativity was how much the world has changed in the time from publication to now What I mean is that there were some predictions about how the international system would function that I can understand why they were considered back then but they are in fact uite inaccurate nowAt the end of the day it s an enjoyable uick read I Charlestown Blues got it from a used bookstore so I feel nouilt an enjoyable uick read I Charlestown Blues: Selected Poems, a Bilingual Edition got it from a used bookstore so I feel nouilt having spent a couple bucks on it If you have in your collection or have access to it I recommend reading it if only to understand not how much the world has changed but how accurate or inaccurate our predictions were Then again what else do you expect from a book that Joe Lieberman praised Andrew Krepinevich s book oozes so much hatred it really makes your jaw dropsThe book propounds 7 catastrophic scenarios Five of them are caused by or directly related to Muslims While the other two aren t Krepinevich nevertheless managed to insert a few parts about radical IslamistsChapter 1 is about the implosion of Pakistan In page 31 Krepinevich mentions something about Jihadists and terror campaigns in Afghanistan and India Then he writes about Jihadist uerrilla and suicide attacks in Kashmir Krepinevich writes it with a straight face dearly wishing that the reader knows nothing about the decades long streak of Indian war crimes in Kashmir which includes torture rape and mass murder A recent Wikileaks cable is among the plethora of evidence to document this mentioning India s systematic torture of Kashmiri civilians Could this cause a violent reaction Couldn t be because we all know that we enjoy being raped tortured and murdered by foreign armies As for Afghanistan American war crimes abound on a regular basis there where airstriking weddings has become a national American pastime so no need to expound there In page 38 Krepinevich continues to wage his anti Islamic crusade writing about Pakistani General Zia Al Ha and his unwise attempt of instituting separate Islamic court systems promoting Islamist officers etc This whole chapter reads like some kind of discarded right wing afterthought like something even Glenn Beck would find laughably hyperbolic In the same page he claims that madrassa schools taught even Glenn Beck would find laughably hyperbolic In the same page he claims that madrassa schools taught a recent and meaningless term primarily used by non Muslims very rarely by Muslims This is only one of Krepinevich s many factual errors In page 41 he claims that young Pakistanis are severely indoctrinated to become terrorists The latter word is used lib. A lobal pandemic finds millions swarming across the US borderMajor US cities are leveled by black market nukesChina’s Bright College Years growing civil unrest ignites alobal showdownPakistan’s collapse leads to a hunt for its nuclear weaponsWhat if the worst that could happen actually happens How would we respond Are we ready These are the uestions that Andrew Krepinevich asks and answers in this timely and often chilling new book which describes the changing face of war in the twenty first century and identifies seven deadly scenarios that threaten our security in the crucial years ahead As president of the Center for Narios are fictional many of the notes are fictional as well For instance any Chicagos Urban Nature given page could contain a note in which there s a reference to a book or interview published in say 2014 with fictitious names and uotes as well That could ve been fun if only Krepinevich didn t mix real facts with fiction Half the notes are fiction the other half real well at least subject to his definition of the word This means you have to check the year in every single note to know if the wittycontroversial uote you just read is real or made up Thisets tiresome pretty uickly and you lose interest in the notes altogetherConclusion an interesting premise ruined by a weak approach and stunning venomous hatred The whole book is nothing than an exercise in intellectual malevolence conceptualized around one essential idea using fiction as a means to advance Islamophobia A similar and free experience is to read any war mongering right wing propaganda website basically the same 4 primary tenets will be there as well hate misinformation hyperbole and self righteous nationalism And if you don t want that effort I ll summarize the book for you in two sentences1 Muslims are immoral subhumans who do nothing but evil worst of all when they fight for their freedom2 America and Israel are moral superhumans who do nothing but Cezanne and Provence: The Painter in His Culture good best of all when they commit war crimes in illegitimate warsThere saved you the time of reading 334 pages You re welcome Disclaimer I m not a military strategist or planner so my review will be solely based on my perspective as a civilian who read it for entertainment and curiosityNote I read the original version not knowing that the author released an updated edition with an additional scenario ISBN 9780553384727 I was able tolean most of the new material off the preview but it s not the sameThis was superbly fun to read I remember being absolutely riveted by the techno thriller type scenarios In that sense it s definitely approaches the What Ifs series of alternative history books based on historical eventsTo show that the US Military is unprepared for war in the 21st century the author crafted a series of scenarios where the US might run into trouble The scenarios are very well written and absolutely entertaining as things repeatedly spiral out of control Though written from the point of view of someone dispassionately taking the broad view instead of focusing in on individual soldiers the narrative is still engrossing Though the scenarios vary widely ranging from nuclear terrorism to the pleasant surprise of a military strategist thinking of pandemic flu there are a few common threads Most prominent of these is how scarce finite resources mean that the military and civilian forces can t be everywhere at once state Chicago's Urban Nature: A Guide to the City's Architecture + Landscape governors have to decide whether to call up the National Guard to maintain order when doing so will depopulate local emergency service departments where a disproportionate amount of Guard members work in their day jobs Additionally hallmark attentionrabbing attacks can be planned and carried out for a relatively cheap price while forcing the defender to spend many times that amount to respond and prevent Numerous times an attacker strikes a vital target and forces the United States an ally or even in one case the entire world to expend vast amounts of resources covering all similar sites Searching container ships for potential WMDs cripples the velocity of trade and preys on the just in time economic system that has reduced inventory to the absolute minimum for maximum profit An attacker can uickly exhaust a defense by salvoing or threatening to salvo scores of relatively cheap munitions to which the defender has to counter with vastly expensive uided munitions Finally the US military is unprepared to deal with the scale of activities that would be involved with countering many small shadowy attackers operating in a large area and if need be performing regime change on a rogue country or stabilizing a collapsed one In all cases the US would be stretched far too thin with manpower reuirements for just one of these operations often exceeding the total number of existing unitsAs an aside though the purpose of these scenarios is specifically stated to et people thinking about potential situations that the US could face in the future rather than trying to predict the future it is still interesting to see how the world is faring 9 years later Some scenarios are now less likely the backbone of the internet has been hardened and dispersed against attack Others have not changed much at all compare and contrast securing loose nukes in a collapsed Pakistan vs North Korea s burgeoning nuclear program while others are completely new the ongoing conflict in Ukraine resembles the a low level version of the open warfare seen decades ago As usual I have a few sore points with the workFake footnotes The author liberally sprinkles footnotes and citations to back up certain points that he makes in the course of his scenarios For instance the scenarios will often describe a huge spectacular attack but make the point that planners should have been aware this was possible because a smaller similar attack took place before which leads to a footnote citing a publication or news story However because the scenarios take place in the near The Author Necessarily Has To author necessarily has to fake People And Uotes To and uotes to out the This is all well and Collections of Nothing good However I feel he crosses a line when he adds citations to those fake uotes and papers with the only clue that they re fake being that they are dated after the publication date of this book Why confuse the issue The author does forewarn the reader of these fake footnotes in the intro but it s still unprofessional Just put the fake uote down and don t have a citationThe workets a little monotonous after awhile because the author absolutely loves using the 2002 Millennium Challenge the 2006 Lebanon War and the Irai insurgency as signs that we should have known These three learning examples are cited over and over again to show that hard pounding conventional forces cannot adeuately deal with small amounts of shadowy attackers or swarm attacks of Communism guided and unguided munitions that can overwhelm a force s defenses At times some of the scenarios feel like updated and expanded versions of the above three examplesGreat inconsistency in the use of names in these future scenarios Vladimir Putin and Dmitry Medvedev show up as themselves in two scenarios but the Chinese leader is alwaysiven a made up name Choose one or the otherSimilarly the author will occasionally jump between present and past tense to describe similar things More annoying than crippling but it s still a sign of imperfect editing RATING 4 stars I enjoyed reading it but it might not have made a lasting impression on me I have no idea how useful this book is to an actual military professional or a civilian involved with the planning process so I can t comment on its technical merits What I can say is that the scenarios for all their aforementioned flaws of style and repetitiveness are absolutely entertaining and engrossing At their best they resemble a detailed plot summary of a decent techno thriller I took off 1 star for the flaws which though admittedly minor were numerous enough to noticeably detract from my experience Additionally this book didn t leave me with any lasting impression besides the argument that the author is making and I m not sure the book would hold up on another readingTL DR Very entertaining techno thriller like writing held back by minor but persistent flaws The scenarios the author presents are very plausible They re How to Read the American City Close Up grounded in projections of present reality take place in the near future and are carefully thought out Anyone interested in military scienceeopolitics or near future economics should read this I hope the leaders of the world are thinking about possibilities like these so that they won t be caught unprepared if they start to happen Looking at the changing face of war in the 21st Century this book looks at several deadly scenarios that will threaten America s and the world s security in the near futureA large part of the world s oil tankers have to travel through two Catholics, Anglicans, and Puritans geographic choke points the Strait of Malacca between Malaysia and Indonesia and the Persian Gulf What would happen to the price of oil and the world economy if one was closed because a supertanker was sunk in the most inconvenient spot and the other was closed because Iran decided to flex its political muscleMuslim terrorists set off several black market nuclear weapons in US cities Beset with internal strife China decides to take back Taiwan once and for all They also send diesel submarines all over the world to cause lots of economic trouble for any country who considers doing something about it The Pakistaniovernment collapses and some of its nuclear weapons find their way into the hands of the fundamentalist members of the military There s one about America dealing with a major cyberattack and one about what will happen after America withdraws from Ira faster than it intended Remember bird flu from a couple of years ago Well it s back mutated into a form that can be easily transmitted from person to person Shopping malls and other public places are deserted hospitals are flooded with the sick and dying America doesn t have nearly enough retroviral drugs even for emergency personnel and it takes time to make To make things worse the White House has just otten word of a human flood of 8 million sick Latin Americans desperate to reach America They are scheduled to reach the US Mexican border in a couple of daysThis is a very sobering and utterly fascinating look at what the future may hold It s not an attempt to predict the future but to show the sort of things that senior planners at the Pentagon are or had better be thinking about Highly recommende. The conseuences of a timed withdrawal from Ira to the likelihood of a China on the march Krepinevich reveals the forces both overt and covert that are in play; the ambitions of world powers terrorist roups and rogue states; and the actions and counteractions both our enemies and our allies can be expected to takeAs riveting as a thriller 7 Deadly Scenarios takes you inside the corridors of power peers into the world of defense planning and explores US military and political strategy in the past present and likely future The result is a must read book that will trigger discussion thought and hopefully actio. Erally throughout the book Krepinevich tries hard to mask his hatred behind a brittle and transparent facade of objectivity but the power of hatred overtakes him in page 46 where he actually used the words Islamist cancer In the same page he mentions the war on Islamists in Ira and Afghanistan Because that s the problem with the world right now See the US illegitimately invaded those two countries and committed unspeakable horrors against the innocents there war crimes still oing as of this review But Krepinevich thinks that s all fine the problem there is that people resisted the invasion In the same page Krepinevich writes about the ang rape that was inflicted upon a Pakistani irl by tribal elders as some arbitrary and cruel punishment Krepinevich claims that the elders acted based on their interpretation Islamic shariah Like so many other things in the book he pulled that out of his backside since not a single source I ve read even mentions Sharia as a possible basis for this crime and nothing in Islamic Sharia could even remotely be interpreted to yield a judgment like this In note 31 the author takes absurdity to new levels sane and insane people dare not dream of He claims that In the eyes of Islamists women are relegated to second class status which they share with infidels and slaves The author is just pouring it on at this point intoxicated senseless by a cocktail of malice and ignorance In the same note he writes that Islamic laws discriminate against women and cites an example They effectively deny protection for a women against rape since four male witnesses must confirm its occurrence Prejudice blinded Krepinevich and made him fall into a contradiction if four male witnesses must confirm what they saw then that means practically all women would o free since it s hardly possible that 4 people would see and confirm intercourse Unless the woman is an exhibitionist with no ualms about sex in public this is not a common occurrence if it occurs at all And notice how Krepinevich mentions rape here The 4 witnesses condition is for adulterypremarital sex not rape A raped woman is considered a victim under Islamic sharia Also in the same page in note 30 he claims that honor killings made a strong comeback with the rise of the Jihadists Unsourced of course and absurd as this practice is tribalcultural not Islamic since Islam forbids this kind of thing Even Wikipedia one of the author s commonly cited sources is absent here In page 51 Krepinevich is so consumed with hatred that he threw away that microscopic semblance of objectivity that he didn t have and wrote an outlandish hilarious scenario in which the big scary monster radical Islamists seize power in Pakistan What happens next Well they want to blow everything up of course You know those Muslims they re terrorists by nature right Right therefore Krepinevich should not be ridiculed for writing that Pakistan would then become a sanctuary and breeding round for Jihadists who would o abroad attempting to subvert other Muslims states and attack non Muslims No this isn t Pat Robertson who s writing this Not Daniel Pipes or Geert Wilders And even though it very much resembles something some flag waving backwoods teen might anonymously write on a white supremacist website it s actually a serious statement by a distinguished his word back jacket visiting professor at a university Ironically it s the US who s been subverting Contested Reproduction: Genetic Technologies, Religion, and Public Debate governments around the world for well over half a century now with covert operations and overt invasions being sanctioned and sold to the people by the likes of Krepinevich dedicatedovernment propagandists and hypocrites of the first orderChapter 2 War Comes to America This scenario is about terrorists detonating several nuclear bombs inside the US The terrorists are naturally Muslims Krepinevich endorses torture in this chapter claiming that it s a successful way to extract information despite virtually all the evidence from real life opposing it completely The author does a ood job of masking his racism but as seen in the last chapter he s only human so he slips on occasion In this scenario after a few bombs cause heavy casualties Krepinevich writes one US tabloid headline sums the thoughts of many Rag Heads 60000 US 0 page 86 Notice his endorsement in the thoughts of many The author makes the claim in page 88 that Muslims started the war against the US when Iranians held American hostages at the onset of the revolution Ironically it was the US who overthrew Mohammad Mosaddegh in 1953 Iran s democratically elected president in favor of the Shah who oppressed the Iranians so much that they backed Khomeini s revolution Krepinevich also conveniently ignores the fact that after years of Haganah terrorism and war crimes against Muslims the US had no problem recognizing Israel 10 minutes after it was established in 1948 In the decades to follow the US would arm this new terrorist state with every weapon known to man knowing full well the atrocities the Jewish regime has been committing on a regular basis against Muslims and supplies this racist enocidal state with whatever it needs to further torture and mass murder Muslims Krepinevich doesn t think that s necessary to mention simply deciding that history starts at 1979 with everything before that being irrelevant thus the Muslims are to blame It s frightening to know someone like this is actually entrusted to educate people To further fan the flames of hatred he writes that one of the nuclear bombs was stored in a mosueChapter 3 is about a pandemic driving a massive wave of Mexican refugees to the US You think how can this relate in any way to Muslims Well Krepinevich to his discredit found a way At the top of page 103 he writes about the 2008 presidential campaign which was dominated by the wars in Afghanistan and Ira and
the broader problem of militant islam conveniently broader problem militant Islam He conveniently to illegal and criminal US invasions merely as wars as if to shift the blame from a one sided aggression to a two sided shared blame affairChapter 4 is about Armageddon with Iran precipitating a regional war As is the case with plenty other parts of the book Krepinevich Dealing with Risk: Why the Public and the Experts Disagree on Environmental Issues gets his facts wrong In page 131 he states that Sunnis comprise 20% of Irais But the number is at least 35% since he apparently didn t include the Kurds who are mostly Sunnis in his numbers Only two pages later Krepinevich screws up again He mentions the 2003 US invasion of Ira then mentions that Hafez Al Asad Syria s leader looked to beoing wobbly in the early stages of the invasion Too bad for Krepinevich Hafez was dead 3 years before the invasion Again this is a professor In page 140 of the same chapter Krepinevich praises the Israeli apartheid wall In page 142 the author writes an absolute hilarity He mentions a rocket attack against Israel followed by the Israeli retaliatory strike on a minor target in the offending area A minor target And only in the offending area The Jenin massacre the two ana massacres and plenty of other enocidal acts by the Jewish state would all beg to differ Israel strikes everywhere and anywhere whether provoked or not Krepinevich is alone against a rumbling tidal wave of facts trying hard to polish the Israeli image He repeats this absurdity two pages later when he describes Israeli retialiation strikes as tit for tat In page 147 Krepinevich puts away his shoe shining kit and dons his psycho analysis cap In note 51 he writes To assuage their wounded pride many Arab states maintain that US and British air strikes were part of the initial attacks during the 1967 Six Day War Someone with a modicum of professionalism would ve written something like Arab states falsely claim But Krepinevich will not let objectivity et in the way of his tabloid sensationalism Counting Krepinevich s factual errors is truly a daunting task therefore I shall make this one the last In page 149 Krepinevich confuses two different mosues Dome of the Rock and Al Asa mosue as one mosueChapter 5 is about China effectively preventing the US from exercising any power in East Asia China effectively preventing the US from exercising any power in East Asia securing its dominance in the region Just like Giulani in his 2008 campaign was so Dark Voices: W. E. B. Du Bois and American Thought, 1888-1903 good at inserting 911 in every possible and impossible subject Krepinevich can insert the phrase radical Islamists anywhere In page 171 of this chapter about China he mentions the war with raidcal Islamist elements Wait you think he s done He s not Though this chapter is about China Krepinevich is not content with blaming every problem in the world on Muslims just once So again in page 189 he writes the following a succession of US administrations distracted by the Long War with radical Islamic states androups Simply amazing Krepinevich indeed has a skill And as usual the blame is never with the US it s always with radical Islamists When the US invaded Afghanistan it was their fault for not accepting the barbaric invasion with open arms When the US invaded Ira it was radical Islamist who were the problem as well Apparently Krepinevich believes that self defense is an abhorrent act and only the most radical of people would resort to such a despicable inhumane revolting offenseKrepinevich tries as much as possible to mention the word Islam and link it with a negative notion even as you can see here in totally irrelevant chapters His mission seems to be inculcating the notion of Islam Bad AmericaIsrael Good The author subscribes to the long cherished principle in elementary school 1st rade classes all over the world that repeating something many times will refute any and all opposing factsChapter 6 is about an attack meant to weaken the lobal economy and thus beget intended chaos Who perpetrates the attack Well Muslims of course who elseChapter 7 is about Ira descending into anarchy thanks to Muslim states and Culture Wars: School and Society in the Conservative Restoration groupsEven the one fairly interesting part of the book is ruined by Krepinevich s incompetence Since the sce. Trategic and Budgetary Assessments and consultant to secretaries of defense the CIA the Homeland Security Council and the Joint Forces Command Krepinevich’s job is to think the unthinkable and prepare a response in the event our worst nightmares become reality Basing his analysis on open intelligence sources an assessment of the latestlobal and political trends and his knowledge of contemporary military history Krepinevich starts each of the seven scenarios in the context of current eopolitical realities and vividly tracks the path to crisis From the implosion of Pakistan to a worldwide cyberattack from. .