[PDF/EBOOK] Alexander Hamilton BY Ron Chernow
The field and playing a key role during the Battle of Yorktown that ssentially won the war Hamilton s role in the writing of The Federalist with James Madison and John Jay along with his political maneuvering was critical in getting the Constitution ratified HIs biggest contributions to the United States probably came from his bold actions as the first secretary of the treasury when he not only got the young nation on sound The Structure of Soviet History: Essays and Documents economic footing but also used money as a tool to link the fates of the freuently bickering states together as a way of achieving unity and promoting a strong federal government As Washington s most trusted advisor Hamilton was critical in shaping the future of the country he did so much to help createAll of this should have meant that Hamilton would be remembered as one of the most important figures in American history but he also made powerfulnemies including Thomas Jefferson The struggle between those who believed power should reside in the federal government or with the states became a bitter fight in which Hamilton was the victim of relentless political attacks that slandered his reputation and made him a perpetual lightning rod of controversy The conflict would lead to the creation of the two party political system as well as a constant tug of war between factions about how much authority the American government should have that continues todayHamilton freuently didn t do himself any favors with his outspoken nature and his insecurities about his illegitimacy caused him to be hypersensitive to insults His basic cynicism and mistrust of people made him wary of popular trends and leaving the fate of America in the hands of the general public who he felt could be too asily swayed by a mob mentality and demagogues Geez where could he have gotten that idea This left him vulnerable to attacks by his nemies who smeared him as an litist at best or a schemer plotting to return America to English control or set up an American monarchy at worst He badly hurt his own political party by feuding with Preside I ve been wracking my brains literally for months trying to figure out who I can compare Alexander Hamilton to on the modern politocelebrity scene or to whom I can compare him if you douchey grammar wonks preferThere are two reasons that process has taken months 1 I m currently operating with the mental processing power of an old Radio Shack TRS 80 on the plus side I guess that means I can run awesome software like Mavis Beacon Teaches Typing and 2 Alexander Hamilton was one uniue son of a Scottish lairdPut Kanye West Noam Chomsky Donald Trump and Steve Martin into a blender and what do you getWell probably a pretty disgusting slurry of liuefied body parts Let me rephrase put the personalities intellects and uirkiest components not to mention the thin skin in some cases of Kanye Noam Chomsky Donald Trump and Steve Martin into a personality intellect and uirk blending processor and what do you get Something that comes out looking but hopefully not smelling given that gents of that vintage probably didn t smell so fresh after a hot summer day traipsing about in heavy unwashed woolen garments a little bit like Alexander Hamilton I d be willing to wager that s the first time anyone anywhere ver has used both Noam Chomsky and Donald Trump as a comparison for an individual that s how singular Hamilton was And how much of a trailblazer I amSmarter people than I have written at great length about this book and its subject so I shan t prattle on for pages and pages Suffice it to say Alexander Hamilton is as influential a person as there is when it comes to shaping US political history and the institutions that affect our lives Date Me every single day and he was perhapsven uniue than he was influential Sure this book could replace the candlestick in the game of Clue just as Comfort And Joy easily as it can be anducational tool It was Colonel Mustard in the library with his copy of Hamilton that bludgeoned poor Professor Plum to death But there are few biographies of recent vintage that can match the immense scope mind boggling level of detail and compulsive readability of this one If you re a history buff in any way or just want to see what all the Broadway hubbub is about you ll want to give this book a whirlA couple of words of warning however first if you re a Thomas Jefferson acolyte you might want to brace yourself Mr Chernow does not treat our country s second Vice President and lifelong Hamilton rival kindly styling him a scheming Francophile bon vivant of the most pernicious kind though really if you re going to be a scheming bon vivant you might as well be of the most pernicious kind otherwise you re just half assing it and if I believe anything it s that anything worth doing is worth whole assing Second if ver a man was on another man s metaphorical nuts it is Ron Chernow on Alexander Hamilton s There are a few instances in which Mr Chernow attempts to maintain a fa ade or at least a veneer do we think a veneer is thinner than a fa ade of scholarly distance and objectivity but by and large his Hamiltonian hard on is of such obvious and epic proportions that I m told the Washington Monument has xpressed concerns to the Mayor of Washington DC that proportions that I m told the Washington Monument has xpressed concerns to the Mayor of Washington DC that Chernow visits our nation s capital he s in violation of the Height of Buildings Act of 1910 The Mayor has thus far refused comment though a source indicates that he has at the very least asked that Mr Chernow not wear sweat pants when he visits the District and has asked him to and I uote try to tuck it into his belt We ll call this a strong 45 stars I heal all wounds but those which love Made Inscription On An "made Inscription on an to Hamilton from her husband Alexander I have read many political biographies in my 41 years but few better Chernow is able to walk that narrow tricky trail between scholarship and narrative storytelling without tripping over hagiography He presents the largeness and improbableness of Alexander Hamilton without leaving out Hamilton s xcesses and flights of paranoia and inflexibility I think Chernow gets it right that If Washington was the father of the country and Madison the father of the Constitution then Alexander Hamilton was surely the father of the American government He was a man who was infused with genius and nergy but also often tone deaf to the political realities of his time He was a man who knew government but was often ungovernable himself His talents built the frameworks that would later create both our nation s conomic government and military capacity as well as the Federalist party however those same skills would also help to tear down the Federalist party because of Hamilton s inability to bend or just shut up Like those prophets that seem to gain strength and honor as the world shifts and slides into alignment with their oracle like vision the modern world seems able to identify and honor Hamilton because in many ways HE made it Chernow s biography paints the details of Hamilton s life with a vision of just how incredible a figure Hamilton was and how his talents often unsettled those around him Chernow also frames Hamilton around those important founding fathers that contributed to Hamilton s rise Washington fall Jefferson Madison Adams and death Burr while also showing how Alexander Hamilton also contributed to his own rise fall and death One of my favorite Cause Of Fear easterggs from this tome was a remark Burr once made after shooting Alexander Hamilton Chernow relates that Only once did Burr betray any misgivings about killing Hamilton While reading the scene in Laurence Sterne s Tristram Shandy an amazing book which I recommend veryone read btw in which the tenderhearted Uncle Toby picks up a fly and delicately places it outside the window instead of killing it Burr is said to have remarked Had I read Sterne and Voltaire less I should have known the world was wide nough for Hamilton and me Anyway an amazing man is never really captured but this biography comes pretty closeFinally Chernow writes primarily about banking families and American biographiesChernow s Banking Dynasties1 Titan The Life of John D Rockefeller Sr 2 The House of Morgan An American Banking Dynasty and the Rise of Modern Finance 3 The Warburgs The Twentieth Century Odyssey of a Remarkable Jewish Family Chernow s American Political Biographies1 Alexander Hamilton 2 Washington A Life 3 Grant Upon reviewing my reviews I m convinced Chernow does slightly better at writing histories of individuals rather than families politics rather than finance However I should note I ve The Game of Love enjoyed ALL of his books and he s a master at his craft Saw Hamilton the Musical on July 12 so after Lin Manuel Miranda and Leslie Odom Jr left but before Daveed Diggs left and it was kinda amazing the world was widenough for Hamilton and me BurrThis book is utterly xhaustive in its scope Dry and dull in a few places xhilarating and taut and heartbreaking in others This feels like a life done justice although I am also curious about the biography that Eliza started and her son finished after she was gone I loved the framing with Eliza in the prologue and pilogue Loved piecing together where the book and musical met loved the bits where they diverged Loved stumbling upon the actual historical lines from letters and writings that made it into the musical s brilliant score Shout out to Scott Brick for bringing this book to life for my ars the way few couldI am so tired It is so long I want to see Hamilton Eliza It had a lot less hip hop than I was xpecting but I still really liked it. Interest but by passionate patriotism and a stubborn will to build the foundations of American prosperity and power His is a Hamilton far human than we’ve ncountered before from his shame about his birth to his fiery aspirations from his intimate relationships with childhood friends to his titanic feuds with Jefferson Madison Adams Monroe and Burr and from his highly public affair with Maria Reynolds to his loving marriage to his loyal wife Eliza And never before has there been a vivid account of Hamilton’s famous and mysterious death in a duel with Aaron Burr in July of 1804Chernow’s biography is not just a portrait of Hamilton but the story of America’s birth seen through its most central figure At a critical time to look back to our roots Alexander Hamilton will remind readers of the purpose of our institutions and our heritage as America. 455 stars How does a bastard orphan son of a whore and a Scotsman dropped in the middle of a forgottenspot in the Caribbean by providence impoverished in sualor grow up to be a hero and a scholar The ten dollar founding father without a father got a lot further by working a lot harder by being a lot smarter by being a self starter by fourteen they placed him in charge of a trading charter And The Lady in Pink ev ry day while slaves were being slaughtered and carted away across the waves he struggled and kept his guard up Inside he was longing for something to be a part of the brother was ready to beg steal borrow or barter Then a hurricane came and devastation reigned our man saw his future drip dripping down the drain put a pencil to his temple connected it to his brain and he wrote his first refrain a testament to his pain Well the word got around they said This kid is insane man Took up a collection just to send him to the mainland Get yourducation don t forget from whence you came and the world is gonna know your name What s your name man Alexander Hamilton My name is Alexander HamiltonFrom Hamilton the musical by Lin Manuel Miranda Eleven Tony wins to Linfor a brilliant broadway score inspired by this bio from author Ron Cherno From bastardy and povertya man of many flaws still a visionarygenius and maker of lawsDriven by ambition a financial wiz of a fledgling nation controversial tragic sadly ironic American iconAlexander Hamilton ButseriouslyHamilton s monument at Trinity Churchyard in New York City The Patriot of incorruptible IntegrityThe Soldier of approved ValourThe Statesman of consummate Wisdom Whose Talents and Virtues will be admired Long after this Marble shall have mouldered into DustPulitzer Prize winning author Ron Chernow s sprawling weighty biography was first published in 2004 and seems to be Eyes enjoying a much deserved popularity resurgence basking in the limelight of Lin Manuel Miranda s smashing 11 Tony Award winning broadway musical inspired by its subject Chernow s biographical treatment might be considered the mostxtensively researched to date of the life of Alexander Hamilton nevertheless it may be found slightly biased as the reader will note ven if his patience wanes and skimming parts becomes the only alternative to fleshing out the pertinent bits in this lifetimeHamilton s story in contemporary terms as Miranda has implied in his musical is the immigrant story where dreams come true Illegitimate orphaned and impoverished he never looked at his personal misfortunes as roadblocks to his future Instead his hard work intelligence and drive to improve his circumstances got him noticed by benefactors who sent him to the USThough a rebel at heart he had a profound dread that popular sentiment would boil over into dangerous xcess and ven amid an insurrection that he supported he fretted about the damage to constituted authority and worried about mob rule Hamilton served in the American Revolution and became aide de camp to George Washington who unreservedly had faith in him despite many who by nature distrusted foreigners doubted his honesty and loyalty and thought him a spy for the BritishTruly a visionary where other minds groped in the fog of war Hamilton seemed to perceive verything in a sudden flash He xerted his brilliance in drafting plans f If they break this Union they will break my heartAlexander Hamilton If anybody had told me a year ago that I would be delving into an 800 page biography on arguably America s least known Founding Father first Secretary of the Treasury and he of ten dollar bill fame I would have said they were crazy But like so many people who will read this book in the coming years it all started with a mad love affair for the Broadway musical It s literally all I ve been able to think about or listen to since April It s consumed my waking hours in the oddest most unpredictable joyous of ways Having now read Chernow s impressive meticulously researched book I am no longer surprised how it was able to inspire Lin Manuel Miranda to write his xtraordinary beautiful Spirit of the Wolf emotional smart searing perfect musical and that s all I m going to say about the musical because I really want this review to focus on Chernow s accomplishment and his fascinating subject Alexander Hamilton One of the things that really jumped out at me while reading this is howasily Hamilton s remarkable life and stupendous achievements could have been A Vineyard Christmas erased and lost to history for good He had manynemies many people who wanted to re write history minimizing his role in it and deny his many staggering contributions Hamilton died relatively young as well just 49 way younger than many of the other Founding Fathers who outlived him by decades Een Bijzondere Vorm Van Osteosclerose except George Washington of course When you don t survive to live and tell your story you are really at the mercy of others Remember this line from Braveheart History is written by those who have hanged heroes Was Alexander Hamilton a hero I think by most definitions he most certainly was Flawed for sure but nevertheless anxtremely intelligent man with confounding reserves of nergy and ambition and a deep abiding inner moral compass of what was thical and right He also possessed an unsurpassed formidable ability to synthesize large complicated ideas into accessible tracts and plans to build meaningful
And Lasting Governments lasting governments and And oh yeah he also wielded his pen in a terrible and mighty way that would have made Shakespeare uiver in his breeches producing mountains of passionate and fiercely written letters and pamphlets and ssaysI also have to believe Hamilton was truly a good man because two very intelligent women remarkable in their own rights his wife Eliza and his sister in law Angelica Church loved him beyond measure and sang his praises for a lifetime How do you avoid getting written out of history by those who have hanged heroes Write brilliantly like a maniac non stop leaving behind some of the most important historical tracts ver penned and be survived by a loyal and dedicated wife who will outlive you by 50 years and spend most of that time fighting for your reputation and the preservation of your rightful place in history Reading Hamilton whilst the sturm und drang of the upcoming American Hot Shot (North Ridge Book 3) election rages in all its frightful rhetoric and bitter partisan vitriol has made for uite ancho chamber of America s shaky fledgling post Revolutionary days and just how tenuous the fabric that binds all the States together really is It was never a marriage made in heaven oftentimes held together by duct tape threats and sheer iron will America "was a walking contradiction with its State vs Federal rural vs urban North vs South slaveholding vs free "a walking contradiction with its State vs Federal rural vs urban North vs South slaveholding vs free Nobody knew and feared these fractures than Hamilton himself But he also knew a United States would be stronger and better than a dissolute nation of independents jockeying for power and control and consumed with self interest I do believe Chernow has proven that no other Founding Father worked as determinedly with Math Basics 6 every cell in his body and top notch brain to preserve the Union and uphold the Constitution There were many compelling forces and influential personalities with the capability to topple this marvelousnterprise with a single huff and one good blow But it was Hamilton standing vigilant it was Hamilton who roared and cajoled and screed not on my watch and here s why It s also no wonder then that on his death bed surrounded by his family and friends that Hamilton should utter with such deep feeling If they break this Union they will break my heartHamilton s life all 49 years of it reads like a Dickensian novel More than once while I was reading I couldn t help but smack my forehead at the stranger than fiction details and uncanny coincidences and twists of fate both tragic and ironic That he began his life as a poor orphan in the Caribbean only to help fight for and build a nation an ocean away is something out of a movie plot As is his infamous death by duel at the hands of then Vice President Aaron Burr sir Who dies in a duel Hamilton does And a few years prior to that fateful meeting in Weehawken his Voyage to the Underworld (Star Wars Missions, eldest son Philip using the same pistols would die the same stupid way There were many times when I wanted to shake Hamilton and kick himspecially when he was tomcatting around and cheating on Eliza with Maria Reynolds but this final decision to duel with Aaron Burr absolutely infuriated me It was SO UNNECESSARY The First Ghost especially given the fact Hamilton still had a wife and young children who depended on him Of course it was a duelingra and duels were pretty commonplace and Chernow makes a strong case that Hamilton wasn t suicidal and really believed he could survive the duel with Burr as most participants do However there was also a part of him that knew he could die since he was so thorough and conscientious in his handling of his affairs And writing a poignant final letter to Eliza which if I had been her I m sure I would have pulled my hair out Alexander knew how utterly devastated Eliza was to lose their son Philip so HOW COULD HE DO THAT TO HER AGAIN Eliza should have been crushed by the grief losing her mother her sister her son her HUSBAND all in a very short time span Yet she persevered and would survive to accomplish many remarkable things in her own right not the least of which was to nsure her husband s rightful prominent place in the history books And now I m off to listen to the Broadway cast album AGAIN Because I can t stop Alexander Hamilton The musical has brought much publi. An alternate cover dition can be found herePulitzer Prize winning author Ron Chernow presents a landmark biography of Alexander Hamilton the Founding Father who galvanized inspired scandalized and shaped the newborn nationIn the first full length biography of Alexander Hamilton in decades Ron Chernow tells the riveting story of a man who overcame all odds to shape inspire and scandalize the newborn America According to historian Joseph Ellis Alexander Hamilton is “a robust full length portrait in my view the best Simple Numbers, Straight Talk, Big Profits!: 4 Keys to Unlock Your Business Potential ever written of the most brilliant charismatic and dangerous founder of them all”Few figures in American history have been hotly debated or grossly misunderstood than Alexander Hamilton Chernow’s biography gives Hamilton his due and sets the record straight deftly illustrating that the political andconomic greatness of today’s Amer.
review Alexander HamiltonCity to this arly founding father I have never seen the musical before but a few Goodreads friends whose reviews I trust recently read this biography I had been following their discussions in the nonfiction book club but still wasn t sure I am in the Doris Kearns Goodwin historian camp and had never read Ron Chernow before What finally pushed me to read this book is that a Chicago Cubs player posted that it took him ighteen months but he finally finished I was sold With much being written about Hamilton his is what I took away from this award winning biography Hamilton was the first rags to riches immigrant who Humanism embodied the American dream and achieved lofty goals from being Washington s advisor to the first secretary of the treasury of the United States Hamilton s vision for the future of the United States his national bank national debt and repaymentsnhancing the British model of government on American soil a model for an industrial society that would Smokin' Hot establish the United States as a key world player the preservation of the Constitution for as long as possible and prevention of secession by any section of the country Federalists vs Republicans and how divided the government was at the country s founding based on their views of agrarian vs industrial society distrust of banks supporting England vs France the country being centered in the north or south and seeing presidents Adams Jefferson Madison and Monroe in a completely different light than the one placed on a pedestal in school books Hamilton and his wife Eliza as champions for the welfare of abused women and orphans and Eliza and her children preserving her husband s memory as the oldest American widow during the 19th century she never remarried in fifty years Hamilton was a love story between him and Eliza and between him and America It was deeply researched and had all thelements of a uality written history book that read like a story I finished the last third in a day I finally took the plunge and read a Chernow biography and am glad that I did and I have a feeling that it won t be my last This was such a compelling book about a compelling man and will most likely be in my top five nonfiction books for this year 5 full stars Hamilton was not the master builder of the Constitution the laurels surely go to James Madison He was however its foremost interpreter starting with The Federalist and continuing with his Treasury tenure when he had to Placing Memory expound constitutional doctrines to accomplish his goals He lived in theory and practicevery syllable of the Constitution For that reason historian Clinton Rossiter insisted that Hamilton s works and words have been conseuential than those of any other American in shaping the Constitution under which we live Alexander Hamilton Ron ChernowI figured it was now or never to read Ron Chernow s Alexander Hamilton I have tickets to see HAMILTON in October I want to be up to speed when I see it Coming in at 818 pages I thought I d need to allot six weeks for this monster I was wrong This book flew by I finished it in less than two weeks I had joked with a friend that 2019 would be my year of big books Little did I know how prophetic that remark would beWhat amazed me most about Alexander Hamilton was Chernow s writing style This did not read as a dry dusty political biography Instead I was swept up in the character of Hamilton and the vents and people that took place not only in America s arly history but in the world of Hamilton s youth This was one xciting read a real pot boiler Time to stop gushing and start writing a proper reviewOther than George Washington no other American leader was present at turning points in the arly years of the United States than Alexander Hamilton He was a rarity among men an outstanding thinker as well as Wanton Nights excellent government visionary andxecutive Ron Chernow puts forth that Hamilton was the foremost political figure in American history who never attained the presidency yet he probably had a deeper and lasting impact than many who didHamilton was born in the West Indies and spent his childhood there and on St Croix Though Hamilton never returned to the Caribbean and rarely spoke of his upbringing Chernow While My Soldier Serves emphasizes how much he was haunted by the scenes of his youthspecially the viciousness of slave society and the languid morals of the islandsDespite a childhood that would make Oliver Twists s look like a picture of happiness Hamilton found a way to rise and prosper In 1772 or arly 1773 he sailed away from St Croix and into American historyThe book s focus is Hamilton s political life specially his role in ಪರಿಸರದ ಕತೆ Parisarada Kathe establishing a national government As a political thinker his greatest achievement was The Federalist Papers written in defense of the proposed ConstitutionChernow balances his appraisal of Hamilton by showing his shortcomings as well Chernow makes clear Hamilton lacked self restraint He often made and kept mortalnemies Chernow brilliantly observes that Hamilton was at his best when under George Washington s authority and watchful The Fiend Next Door eye Washington was the father Hamilton had been deprived of in lifeChernow concludes with the steps and missteps of Hamilton s later life down to the heartbreaking scene of hisldest son s death in a duel in defense of "his father s honor and finally to Hamilton s own death at Vice President Burr s hands in their duel "father s honor and finally to Hamilton s own death at Vice President Burr s hands in their duel Weehawken New Jersey in 1804With Chernow s biography Hamilton has been vindicated and his reputation restored It is Chernow s biography that served as the inspiration for Lin Manuel Miranda s Hamilton Together Chernow and Miranda have made Hamilton the hero of the founding fathers as he should be I also love how much attention Chernow paid to Eliza Hamilton who outlived her husband 50 years She impressed on her
a singular duty shall be done to the memory of my Hamilton With this breathtaking biography Eliza Hamilton s prophecy has been fulfilled I have now read the Hamiltome I know that s what people call the book Lin Manuel Miranda wrote about the musical but seriously this thing could stop bullets I wouldn t have picked this book up if it weren t for the musical and it wasn t xactly light reading but I m glad that I did Before I did I was kinda sure that Hamilton was the guy who was shot by Aaron Burr and pretty sure he d never been president and if I thought for a second I d remember that he was on the 10 bill Now I know so much Like that he founded the Coast Guard and the first national bank That he wrote most of Washington s speeches as president and dispatches during the war I know how influential he was to politics to industry and banking and to the law And he did it all by the time he was killed at 49 by Aaron Burr who frankly was an asshole Anybody who writes detailed letters about his sexual conuests to his own daughter is an asshole And that s not all he didThis was an xcellent and பொன்னியின் செல்வன் - புது வெள்ளம் exhaustingly thorough biography I didn t give it five stars because well it s notxactly light reading I wouldn t pick it up again and I will recommend it to hardcore history buffs and not necessarily your average reader But it shed a lot of light on the arly days of our country it gave me a new appreciation for Hamilton Washington and others And a healthy dislike of Jefferson as well as John Adams who I swear to Odin had to have been bipolar I have no regrets about reading it am in fact very glad that I read it It did make me yearn for a book all about Eliza Hamilton though Honestly a book just about Alexander and Eliza s family life would be fascinating but impossible since she really did burn all her letters And musical fans Yes Lin Manuel has taken liberties with storyline and whatnot And that s okay If you really want to know the truth here s the book for you If you d rather sit back and njoy a cabinet battle all in rap you know where to goAll hail the self starter the ten dollar Founding Father HAMILTON Like a lot of people I ve been listening to the Hamilton musical album non stop and read this because it was the source of Lin Manuel Miranda s inspiration to create the brilliant Broadway show The idea that a dense biography of an American Founding Father who was probably best known to the general public as the guy on the the ten dollar bill and the subject of a pretty funny Got Milk commercial would someday lead to the creation of an incredibly popular musical that blends show tunes with hip hop is only a little less likely than the life of Alexander Hamilton himselfAnd if you re interested in reading a great account of the impact the show has on people I highly recommend this article that sportswriter Joe Posnanski wrote about taking his daughter to see itThe circumstances of Hamilton s birth on a Caribbean island as the illegitimate son of a divorced woman and a fortune seeking Scotsman were the first strike against him and things only got worse when his father abandoned him and his mother died As an orphan with no money and an A Meditation on Murder embarrassing social status for the time young Alexander probably should have lived a short hard life and been forgotten by history However he also had a brilliant mind a talent for writing and annormous appetite for work that was fueled by relentless ambition After a hurricane devastated his island Hamilton wrote an account of the tragedy so moving that a collection was taken up to send him to America to attend collegeHamilton arrived in New York just as the American Revolution was about to start and his talents landed him a pivotal position on George Washington s staff as well leading troops in. Ica is the result of Hamilton’s countless sacrifices to champion ideas that were often wildly disputed during his time “To repudiate his legacy” Chernow writes “is in many ways to repudiate the modern world” Chernow here recounts Hamilton’s turbulent life an illegitimate largely self taught orphan from the Caribbean he came out of nowhere to take America by storm rising to become George Washington’s aide de camp in the Continental Army coauthoring The Federalist Papers founding the Bank of New York leading the Federalist Party and becoming the first Treasury Secretary of the United StatesHistorians have long told the story of America’s birth as the triumph of Jefferson’s democratic ideals over the aristocratic intentions of Hamilton Chernow presents an ntirely different man whose legendary ambitions were motivated not merely by self.Family A Singular Duty